LDIM's Public Forums
Living in the Ruins: Visitor’s perspectives on lives in the collapsed area of Xe Pian-Xe Namnoy Dam” - 22 July 2020
Laos Dam Investment Monitor, together with the support from Thailand Society for Environmental Journalists (TSEJ) organized the public forum “Living in the Ruins: Visitor’s perspectives on lives in the collapsed area of Xe Pian-Xe Namnoy Dam” on 22 July 2020 at the Dialogue Coffee and Gallery in Bangkok, upon the two years anniversary of Xe Pian-Xe Namnoy Dam collapsed in Lao PDR. The public forum was organized also with the photo exhibition "Cost of Live, Cost of Living" by Visarul Saenkham of Realframe Group.
Speakers to the panel:
- Premrudee Daoroung, Laos Dam Investment Monitor
- Phairin Sohsai, International Rivers
- Yun Jiyoung, the Korean Civil Society Task Force Team for the Xe-Pian Xe-Namnoy Dam Collapse
- Yuka Kigochi, Mekong Watch
- Visarut Saenkham, Realframe Group
Moderator: Thitipan Pattanamongkol,
Thailand Society for Environmental Journalists (TSEJ)
Watch the Facebook Live of this event https://youtu.be/M5pseWq_Yr0
See photos and stories of the photo exhibition at Exhibitions/films and Arts and also here:
LDIM and Save the Mekong in ACSC/APF 2019 - 10-12 December 2019
ASEAN Civil Society Conference/ASEAN Peoples’ Forum (ACSC/APF 2019)
Title “Advancing Peoples’ Movement for Justice, Peace, Equality, Sustainability and Democracy in Southeast Asia”
Date: 10-12 September 2019
Place: Thammasart University, Rangsit Campus, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand
LDIM, together with the International Rivers played the role of the Ecological Sustainability Convergence Space’s focal points to facilitator the process for all organizing the workshop and other activities. Among the 7 workshops under Ecological Sustainability Convergence Space, The members of LDIM and Save the Mekong Coalition organized two events;
1) Workshop "Rivers of Life: Protecting and Managing Our Shared Ecological Resources"
the workshop examines the threats facing critical river systems in Southeast Asia – with a focus on river basins of the Lower Mekong and Myanmar. It will look at models for river protection from the perspective of local communities and civil society. Speakers share perspectives on existing systems and urgent needs for river conservation and management, from community to basin-level. The workshop examines these demands in the context of the global movement for river protection, with policy recommendations for ASEAN and the governments of the region.
Speakers: The representative from Pan Nature, Vietnam, Fisheries Action Coalition Team (FACT) (Cambodia), Karen Environment and Social Action Network (KESAN) and International Rivers
2) The ACSC/APF Poll on the proposed ASEAN fourth Pillar on Environment: Expressing the voice in the postcard
A decade ago in 2009, when Thailand was a chair of ASEAN and the two ACSC/APF were organized, various environmental and human rights Civil Society group have worked together to develop the “Propose framework on Environment” that aimed to use as the tool to progress the dialogue and the calls for the “ASEAN’s Forth Strategic Pillar on Environment”. The proposal was to urge that “ASEAN should prepare a blueprint that commits that member states to place international best practices on environmental sustainability at the center of decision making” and also to highlight the critical situation on the environment with the close link to human rights within ACSC/APF and also with other actors and the public. There are 3 core themes being addressed in the proposed framework including; 1)Large-scale development projects that lead to the environment and livelihood destruction 2) Climate Change and; 3) Biodiversity.
In the past ten years, the proposed pillar has always stated in the final ACSC/APF statements. It was also raised in the formal discussion between CSOs representative with the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). Although the process to review the ASEAN Blueprint has not been occurred, but the proposed pillar still having the role of the flagging proposal of ACSC/APF.
LDIM proposed the activity to celebrate the ten years anniversary of the proposal by inviting the participants to put their idea on the critical environmental situation and flag to request for the fourth pillar again base on the individual opinion in the postcard.
The postcard had printed in Thai and English language with the below content;
In ACSC/ASEAN Peoples' Forum 2009, we proposed; “ASEAN should launch a fourth Strategic Pillar on
Environment and prepare a blueprint that commits the member states to place international best practices on environmental sustainability at the center of decision-making” with the three core thematic;
•Large-scale development projects, including hydropower dams and extractive Industries, that lead to the environment and livelihood destruction;
•Climate change, a crisis that further highlights the vulnerability of the region; and
•Biodiversity, where there is lack of people participation in trade agreements and in the use of GMOs, biosafety and new technologies, and lack of sharing the benefits from biodiversity.
A decade has passed. Is there enough evidence to make ASEAN listen to our voices?
Raise your voice!
In your opinion, what is the MOST IMPORTANT environmental issue that ASEAN should be addressed? (Give a reason if you like)
Do you support the proposal to have ASEAN’s Fourth Pillar on Environment?
If yes, please give us your full name and address. (With some additional opinion as you wish)
There were around 60 people participated in the actual workshop. The participants of the workshop and also previous workshop “Rivers of Life: Protecting and Managing Our Shared Ecological Resources” have also verbally and raising hands in actions to adopted the idea of the fourth pillar.
The postcards were later on circulating within different workshops within ACSC/AFP. There are more than 200 postcards with the written answer returned to LDIM.
LDIM team has also able to interview around 15 people from 10 countries on the issues related to the question raised in the postcard.
The fourth Pillar on Environment was finally mentioned again in the ACSC/APF 2019 Final statement and also brought up in the town hall plenary with the CSOs discussed with the ASEAN States’ representative
Workshop on hydropower dams in ASEAN Peoples' Forum 2018, Singapore - 3 November 2018
The workshop “Hydropower dams: Role and Responsibility of governments, investors and regional platform in ASEAN” organized on 3 November 2018 at the ASEAN Civil Society Conference/ASEAN Peoples’ Forum (ACSC/APF) in Singapore Polytechnic Graduate’s Guide, Singapore
Co-organizer: Laos Dam Investment Monitor (LDIM), PanNature, Vietnam and Fishery Action Coalition Team (FACT), Cambodia
Participants: around 45 people (mostly the participants of ACSC/APF)
Premrudee Daoroung, Coordinator, Laos Dam Investment Monitor (LDIM)- Program Introduction
Le Nguyen, Director, PanNature, Vietnam and Save the Mekong Coalition (StM) on "A Snapshot of Mekong Dams and Impacts’. Nguyen was representing the
Save the Mekong Coalition (StM)
Khampin Aksorn, Representative of Ta-mui Learning Center, Ubon Rachathani Province, Northeastern Thailand and the citizen journalist of the Thai Broadcast Public Service (Thai PBS) on "the situation of Mekong and impacts from dams" (with the video)
Youk, Deputy Director of Fishery Coalition Action Plan (FACT).
and the coordination committee member of Save the Mekong Coalition on "The value of Mekong in Cambodia, and the impacts of hydropower dams in Tonle Sap (the Great Lake).
Premrudee Daoroung, Coordinator, LDIM, Premrudee talked about the work and observation related to the XP-XNN dam incident.
Video from the live-stream of the workshop
The full ACSC/APF 2018’ statement can be found at;
Forum: Flood beyond the nature - 2 October 2018
In relation to the situation of XePian-Xe Namnoy Dam collapse and the situation in the rainy season, there was the incident of the water released from the existing dams in Laos in order to avoid the dam breaking risk. The flood caused a severe flood in the areas in Laos and also North-eastern Thailand. According to the report released in November 2018 by the UN country team in Laos, there were 2,382 villages, 126,736 families, 616,145 people reported as affected by the flood in Laos. 90,000 ha of paddy fields and 11,000 ha of other plantations have been destroyed. The most affected provinces are Vientiane Capital, Khammouane, Huaphanh, and Attapeu. Attapeu is most affected per capita. The most damaged areas are the areas downstream of the existing major hydropower dams in the country. The water from the dams has worsened the flood that naturally happens during the rainy season. Before the Laos dam’s water flooded over Northeastern Thailand during the past rainy season, the Thai authority was openly announced to informed the people of the operation of the dam. Nam Ngum 1 dam in Vientiane Province released aftermath of XP-XNN dam collapse has caused the loss of around 400,000 rai (64,000 hectares) of agricultural land in Bungkarn Province in Northeastern Thailand and other areas nearby.
LDIM organized the local gathering and press conference in North-eastern Thailand in October 2018 with the cooperation with the colleagues from Save the Mekong Coalition (StM). Representatives from 7 provinces along the Mekong River in Northeastern Thailand traveled to participate in the event. The activity was a half-day meeting and half-day field trip to the affected area.
Video “Flood beyond the Nature” (for the forum
Thai PBS https://fb.watch/31mIUTfERS/
Thai PBS (Television) https://fb.watch/2_v1AMD311/
Radio Free Asia Laos https://fb.watch/2_pZ1T9nns/
Public Forum “The Collapse of XP-XNN Dam in Laos: Voices from the ground and Korea” Sogang University, 19 September 2018
The half-day event attended by around 90 people, including the civil society groups’ members, students, academics, Korean and International media. Sogang University Institute of Social Sciences hosted the event. The Korean Taskforce on Xe Pian-Xe Namnoy Dam produced a large handbook on the situation (in the Korean Language) to circulate in the forum.
There are four presentations in the forum and panel discussions;
The Mekong team;
- Premrudee Daoroung, the Coordinator of Project SEVANA and LDIM presented the overall situation of the dam collapse.
- Phou Bunthann, the Cambodian local activist and Researcher, together with Kong Lean, a village person from Yangsum village, Siem Pang District, Stung Treng Province of Northern Cambodia informed the meeting about the situation in Cambodia with the flood from XP-XNN dam collapse.
- Witoon Permpongsacharoen, Director, Mekong Energy and Ecology Network (MEENet) gave the analysis on the Current Status and problems of hydropower development projects in the Mekong region and on the energy business and the involvement of Thailand.
- Jirapha Kampaphan, the journalist from the Thai PBS who travel and worked in the flooded area and the campsite in Laos for three weeks also gave her opinions from her direct experiences and answered the question of the audients from the floor.
- The Korean civil society Taskforce for Xe Pian-Xe Namnoy team had Lee Gangjun, Director, Energy, and Climate Policy Institute presented on the status and problem of Korea hydropower market in Mekong Region. The well-researched paper that he prepared for the event was also provided in the forum.
- Lee Youngran, Director, Lao Renewable Energy AssistanceCenter, Energy&Climate Policy Institute/Korea Civil Society Taskforce
- Kim Soyeon, Professor, Sogang University Institute for East Asian Studies
- Yun Jiyoung, Team Manager, Policy Department, PEACEMOMOO/Korea Civil Society Taskforce on XP-XNN
- Um Eunhui, Senior Researcher of Seoul National University Centre for social Science
- Lee Yuongah, Coordinator, Peoples Solidarity participatory Democracy/ Korea Civil Society Taskforce on XP-XNN
Moderator: Ryu Seokjin, Professor, the Dean of
Sogang University of Social Science and Kim Chuni, Vice Secretary-General of
Korea Federation for Environmental Movements
The panels received many good questions from the floor. The audiences were mostly concern about the condition of people in Attapeu. Some questions were about the role of the Korean companies and the government. The audiences were also curious about the operation of the Laos government to respond to the urgent need of the people.
Watch the video of the event here
Opening video for the forum
The Gathering and press conference in front of SK Engineering and Construction Company, the lead company for Xe Pian Xe Namnoy dam construction, September 19, 2018
The gathering of around 25 activists in front of the SK company’s building has become a good attraction to the people in the area of the company's building. More than 10 Korean media agencies attended in the press conference. The presentations conducted by;
Premrudee Daoroung, LDIM Coordinator on the situation of Xe Pian-Xe Namnoy.
The members of the Korean Taskforce on
- The reason and need for the SK Engineer and Construction company, who is handling the construction of the XP-XNN dam to come out and responsible.
- The role of another Korean company involved in Xe Pian-Xe Namnoy Dam, the Korean Western Power (KOWEPO), a subsidiary of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) the largest electric utility in South Korea which the South Korean government (directly and indirectly) owns a 51.11% share.
- Reading statement and the questions/answer session
- Statement submission. Phairin Sohsai of the International Rivers (IRs) together with the Korean Taskforce team went inside the SK company building to submit the statement to the front desk of the company.
The video from the gathering can be found here: https://youtu.be/VaS4xJIOYqY
Transborder news สำนักข่าวชายขอบ (transbordernews.in.th)
KBS News (Korea) - http://news.kbs.co.kr/news/view.do?ncd=44199
Yonhapnews (Korea) - https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR2189213314
The Fact (Korea) - [TF사진관] 라오스 댐 참사… "정부와 SK건설, 책임감 있는 대처 바라" - 더팩트
News.joined (Korea) 라오스 댐 붕괴, 캄보디아까지 큰 피해…"실종자 모두 사망 추정" - 중앙일보 (joins.com)
TF News (Korea) - http://m.tf.co.kr/read/photomovie/1733497.htm
Public Forum “Mysteries in Laos Dam Business" - 9 August 2018
Public Forum on “ “Mysteries in Laos Dam Business: Foreign companies, Korean ODA, Thai energy plans and the collapse of Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy hydropower dam”
Date and time: Thursday 9th August 2018 at 9.30 am – 4 pm
Place: Student Christian Center, Bangkok, Thailand
Background of the project
On the 23rd July, the Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy saddle dam “D” collapsed with the immediate effect of approximately 175 billion cubic feet of water being released in a flash flood, cascading down from a height of 630m above sea level into the lower stretches of the valley formed by the Xe Pien River in southern Laos. The massive collapse left the people in its way with less than 4 hours to prepare and move out from the immediate danger zone. Many affected villagers did not even get the news about the looming danger of this huge dam collapsing. As a consequence, at least 6,000 people have been immediately affected by the flash floods triggered by the dam break. Among them, more than 30 people already confirmed dead. Washed away by the violent floodwaters, dead bodies were also found in the lower stretches of the affected river system across the border in Cambodia’s Stung Treng Province.
The catastrophe triggered regional and worldwide expressions of sympathy and support for the affected people of Attapeu and Champasak provinces in Southern Laos. However, while the flow of donations and the arrival of rescue teams have been ongoing, very few people understand the root causes of that disaster, in particular, the role the underlying investment processes have played in increasing the risks. This particular hydropower project has been developed and managed by the Xe-Pian Xe-Namnoy Power Company (PNPC), a joint venture formed in 2012 by SK Engineering and Construction (Korea), Korea Western Power, Ratchaburi Electricity Generating Holding in Thailand, and the Lao Holding State Enterprise. Ratchaburi Electricity Generating Holding is a private company subsidiary of the Energy Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). The investments provided by the Lao government as one of the project’s shareholders came through direct support from South Korea. To this end, the South Korean government provided the Laotian government with a concessional loan of US$ 80.8 million channeled via a specific Economic Development Cooperation Fund (EDCF) run by the Korea Export-Import Bank. The hydropower plant was scheduled to begin operations in 2019.
Under the signed agreements, 90% of electricity produced would have been exported to Thailand, with EGAT being the official buyer. In addition, several major Thai banks provided funding for the project: Krung Thai Bank, Tanachart, the Export-Import Bank of Thailand, and the Bank of Ayudhaya (Krung Sri).
As the above information shows, a diverse group of developers and investors have been involved in the project from the outset, playing different roles in the process of the planning and construction of the Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy hydropower plant. Before pending issues of compensation and disaster recovery assistance might be answered conclusively, the regional and international community and in particular the people in Laos should be able to understand the patterns of responsibility among the diverse group of investors, authorities, and developers involved in the project.
This Public Forum organized in Bangkok, Thailand was planned with the aims to bring together local groups with substantive and thorough knowledge about the history and relevant technical and financial aspects of this particular hydropower project, also to help clarify and make available to the public some of the unknown and hidden facts behind the vast proliferation of hydropower plants in Laos. This includes information and analysis as to how Korean official development aid (ODA) has played a role in causing this disaster, affecting Lao communities in the South of the country. The Public Forum also discusses the response of the Korean people to this tragedy. An analysis of Thailand’s energy plan planned to be provided and the future of Thai-Laos cooperation in the energy sector was also on the agenda, along with the positions and opinions of local people who live close to Laos and relate to the situation of the Lao people. Finally, issues of corporate accountability and the applicable human rights framework for business was also on the discussion agenda.
The one-day Public Forum was also planned to be entitled “Laos Dam Investment Monitor (LDIM) ”, to highlight the aim to establish a people/citizen and activist network that pays particular attention to the situation in Laos in terms of the problematic proliferation of large-scale hydropower dam projects. The Forum was consist of two main panels, one in the morning and one in the afternoon, respectively. Korean citizens and civil society groups gathered together as a task force under the name the “Coordinated Response Team of the Korean Civil Societies for the Xe Pian-Xe Nam Noy Dam Collapse” (The Korean Taskforce) were also organize the parallel press conference in Korea at the same time of the Bangkok’s Public’s Forum. The two groups also released the Joint Declaration that was reading and circulating in both forums in English, Thai and Korean language.
- Short video: "Hydropower dams in Lao PDR and the establishment of LDIM" https://fb.watch/2-EsJE3SHp/
- Opening speech: “How Mekong people feel about the collapse of Xe Pien -Xe Nam Noy Dam?” by Mrs.Sompong Viengchan, leader of Pak Mun Dam Movement, Ubon Ratchathani Province
Highlight issues related to the Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy Dam situation, key actors, and their roles
- How significant of Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy area to the Mekong plains, from Laos to Cambodia? What do we know so far about the dam collapse situation? By Premrudee Daoroung, Coordinator of Project SEVANA South-East Asia and Laos Dam Investment Monitor (LDIM)
- Voice from Cambodia By Meach Mean, Villager from Cambodia’s Sesan, Sekong and Srepok area
- Our knowledge about Laos dams and dam builders, and what we wanted to see by Niwat Roykaew, Leader of Rak Chiang Khong Group, Chiang Rai Province
- How Korea and the ODA ‘make dam happened’ in Laos" by Soyeun Kim, Associate Professor from Sogang Institute for East Asian Studies, Sogang University, South Korea
- Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy Dam: Benefits of Ratchaburi holding and EGAT, but what about Thai people? By Witoon Permponsacharoen, Director, Mekong Energy and Ecology Network (MEE Net)
- After the Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy tragedy, what is the future of Laos ambitious policy to be the “Battery of Asia”? by Supalak Kanchanakundee, Editor, The Nation
The video presentation an announcement of the joint-declaration of Laos Dam Investment Monitor (LDIM) and the Coordinated Response Team of the Korean Civil Societies for the Xe Pian-Xe Nam Noy Dam Collapse, Korea
**Read the joint declaration at Statements
Q/A and Discussion among participate experts and audiences
Moderator: Kamol Sukin, Southeast Asia Regional Editor, China Dialogue
and Premrudee Daoroung, LDIM
**Watch the video of the morning session here https://fb.watch/31k8MdBeTJ/
13.30- 15.00 Presentation of Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy news clips and detailed discussion
- Tragedy of Xe Nam Noy –Xe Pien dam: Korea’s business interest in the Mekong? by Soyeun Kim
- Thai energy plan: Impacts to Laos and other neighbors by Witoon Permpongsacharoen
- Experience from dialogue with ‘the Chinese’ on the dam in Laos by Niwat Roikaew
- Future of the people after the dam, from our direct experiences by Sompong Viengchan and Meach Mean
Q/A and Discussion
**Watch the video of the afternoon session here
The declaration of the 9th August 2018
On August 9, 2018, there was a gathering of people and civil society groups gathering in two places, Bangkok, Thailand, and Seoul, South Korea. Two networks are organizing the two forums, first, the Laos Dam Investment Monitor (LDIM) and the Coordinated Response Team of the Korean Civil Societies for the Xe Pian-Xe Nam Noy Dam Collapse.
In accordance with the contents of our discussion, and the analysis from knowledgeable participants in the two forums, LDIM and the Korean Civil Society Taskforce wish to state and publicize our standpoints and proposal in relating to the Xe Pien- Xe Nam Noy hydropower dam in Lao PDR as below;
Firstly – STOP - Xe Pian-Xe Nam Noy hydropower dam has no legitimacy to continue – First of all, we are acknowledging that, as the result of the Xe Pien Xe Nam Noy Dam collapse on the 23rd of July, the Laos cabinet has announced on the 7th of August to carry out inspections to all existing dams in the country and decided to suspend the consideration of new investments in hydropower projects in order to review its hydropower development strategy and plans. Without knowing the next step planning take by the government of Lao PDR, we declare our understanding that Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy project has lost its total legitimacy to continue its original function as a hydropower dam. The dam that was planned to only sell electricity to Thailand to add up on top of the high percentage of energy surplus that Thailand already has, has killed at least 35 people and is causing long-term suffering of tens of thousands of people in both Lao PDR and Cambodia. The natural resources and the environment from the disaster are beyond description. The Laos government and the consortium of the companies need to put their primary emphasis on the operation to rescue and bring back the most possible security to peoples’ lives and future, and also the recovery of the environment that is being destroyed. The severe impacts from the collapse that has been witnessed by the world need to be admitted and learn from by the investment actors involve. After all, the investors, the Laos government, the Korean government, and the Thai energy authority need to accept the fact that Xe-Pien-Xe Nam Noy is now only carrying the role of an important symbol of the people, country, and the global tragedy.
Secondly – DECLARATION - The most transparent and urgent declaration by the investors and authorities involved need to be in place now – The impact of Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy collapse have gone beyond the border of the country. The expectation of the Thai, Korean, and global communities can only be met by seeing the formal and proper apologies by the SK Engineering & Construction (SK E&C), Korea Western Power (KOWEPO), the Thai power company Ratchaburi Electricity Generating Holding (RATCH) and Lao Holding State Enterprise (LHSE), in close cooperation with the Laos government and the electricity of Thailand to the people of Lao PDR and Cambodia. The apologies have to be the first step towards a clear declaration on the responsibility of each investment beneficiary of the project towards the lives and livelihood of the people and resources belonging to Xe Pien Xe Nam Noy, rivers, and the surrounding environment.
The process of inspection by Laos and the Korean government on the overseas investment of public corporations or private sector such as the two Korean company and Thai’s Ratch is necessary. The process of the public money being used as the Official Development Assistance (ODA) in Korea also necessary to be declared and investigate by the public. The responsibility by law and other legitimate frameworks and measurements needs to be declared to the public, to allow the most systematic monitoring and role-taking of any people, communities, and groups that are willing to engage in the mission that can ensure a better situation and recovery of the affected peoples’ future, both in Lao PDR and Cambodia.
Lastly, COMPENSATION - The most urgent thing is the operation to rescue and compensate the people affected by Xe Pien-Xe Nam Noy dam collapse on the ground. - What is presently occurring in the eyes of the public, is the denying of responsibility among the companies and authorities responsible. Instead of pushing it away, the world community is waiting to see the direct involvement of the top persons of all companies on the ground, to meet and support the people that are still buried in the mud in Lao PDR. All the companies need to formally acknowledge that in some areas, people are still in the stage of waiting to be rescued and doing so with hunger and suffering. The work directly in Lao PDR is, therefore, the companies’ most urgent task. In the middle and long term, the problem such as the flooded the unexploded ordnance coming down from the mountain to the lower affected areas and the livelihood recovery of peoples, especially with children and the younger generation, has been estimated that to take years or possibly almost a decade from now.
Finally, but importantly, we state the necessity of the companies and the governments for NOT putting the compensation cost back to the electricity bill and the public fund that is paid by the Thai, Korean, and the Laos citizenry. The companies and the consortium of beneficiaries need to bear the cost solely for the compensation for the disaster that just occurred.
With the three issues stated in this declaration, we, the Laos Dam Investment Monitor and the Coordinated Response Team of the Korean Civil Societies for the Xe Pian-Xe Nam Noy Dam Collapse, state the most important need for the participation of Laos, neighboring countries, and the people from outside of the country to be welcomed by the Laos government. With this, we declare our commitment to continue our monitoring and work that is needed in relating to the project’s cessation – declaration and the compensation with the close involvement of the Laos government, the Korean government, and the Thai government with its energy authority, in order to ensure the dignity and security of people in Lao PDR and Cambodia, the sustainability of natural resources and the environment that means everything to us.
Laos Dam Investment Monitor (LDIM) And the Coordinated Response Team of the Korean Civil Societies for the Xe Pian-Xe Nam Noy Dam Collapse
Thai PBS Television https://fb.watch/2_uLNld2Zj/
Thai PBS Website จี้ 4 นักลงทุน “ขอโทษ-ยุติ-ชดเชยชาวลาว” เซเปียนแตก (thaipbs.or.th)